The victim, whose name is being withheld, is currently in intensive care at Atlanta Medical Center.
Bobby Jay Roberts, 37, came to his home on Barton Lane Saturday to find the victim inside the home with Roberts' wife.
The 46-year-old male victim was shot once in the back. The bullet went straight through his back, Capt. Jeff Richards with the Carroll County Sheriff's Office said.
Police responded to two different 911 calls after the shooting — one from a homeowner and one from the victim himself.
From what can be pieced together through the investigation, police say they believe Roberts was out of town and came home to find his wife and the victim together.
Richards said police do not believe the suspect knew the victim beforehand.
The two got into an altercation that transitioned to the home's yard, Richards said.
Roberts, charged with aggravated assault, is being held at Carroll County Jail, pending a bond hearing.
Also over the weekend:
• Police are investigating the taking of a power meter from Turner Pharmacy on Dixie Street in Carrollton.
Capt. Chris Dobbs with the Carrollton Police Department said police were called to the pharmacy, as well as Georgia Power, after the owner discovered the power meter was missing from the building.
Dobbs said the crime was "unusual" with its proximity to the hospital, but that the perpetrators were most likely going to use the power meter on a home to get free power, as Georgia Power would not be able to track the meter if the crime had gone unreported.
• A resident of Lakeview Apartments came home Sunday afternoon to find several electronics items missing.
The victim, who lives in an apartment building on Stewart Street in Carrollton, reported an iPod, Xbox 360 and several speakers taken.
The perpetrator forced his or her way into the home through a window in the back, Dobbs said.
Altogether, the items are estimated to be valued at more than $600.
The crime is believed to have taken place between 1:45 p.m. and 4 p.m. Sunday.
• A person driving a grey or silver mini-van is suspected of stealing catalytic converters from cars parked at a Carrollton glass shop.
The owners of Whitman's Glass Shop on Dixie Street in Carrollton reported to police that a person had broken into the fenced-in area behind the shop in which all the cars being worked on were parked.
Catalytic converters were taken from two of those cars, presumably for their metal components.
Dobbs said police do not have any suspects in the thefts. If anyone has any information about the offense, please call CPD at 770-834-4451.